Saturday, 23 March 2013

After days and days doing my research which now i am done , I began to find and watch some interesting videos which I am also going to share at this blog.This are the list of the videos on water.

Best way to increase water supply

Out of the five different ways I researched about increasing the supply of water in Singapore, Local catchment areas, Imported Water, NEWater, Desalinated Water and Conserving Water , I think that the best and most effective tap is the third tap, which is NEWater.

Even though NEWater is the most expensive tap out of all the 4 taps, it is also the most reliable and effective tap. NEWater is sustainable in the long run and we are able to depend on ourselves and we can save more water. It is better to have a reliable and expensive source of water than an unreliable but cheap source of water. Singapore and our country both experience water shortage, if the source of water unreliable, it will have negative impacts on  our country such as dehydration and insufficient water for industries and crops.Therefore, our country needs a reliable and effective source of water( NEWater) that would allow us to be self sufficient even in the long run.

In addition , my country could also use the method to conserve water. Like I say previously in the blog ,there are no such things as disadvantages in conservation of water because it is an act to make things better. .

Therefore, I suggest that in our country, we should do the same thing that Singapore is doing. We should purify used water and make our own brand of water which is similar to Singapore's NEWater and do a campaign which shows people how to conserve water. This will solve the problem of water scarcity in our country. I

Conserving Water

Even though conserving water is not one of Singapore's national taps, it is still a way to increase water supply. There are many different ways to conserve water. 

 Here are a few ways in which you could do your part to conserve water.
  • When washing dishes by hand, don't let the water run while rinsing.
  • Run your clothes washer and dishwasher only when they are full. You can save up to 1,000 gallons a month.
  • Collect the water you use for rinsing fruits and vegetables, then reuse it to water houseplants.
  • Use a water-efficient showerhead. They're inexpensive, easy to install, and can save you up to 750 gallons a month,
There you go! Conserving water is as easy as 1,2,3! You are able to save money, and water too!

 Advantages of conserving water:
  • It reduces the risk of future water shortage as families and industries are encouraged to prevent water supplies from depleting
  • Reduces land demand as there is no need to devote more land to build more water facilities to meet the growing demand for water
  • It saves cost on building new water facilities
There are no such things as disadvantages in conservation of water because it is an act to make things better.

Tap 4: Desalinated Water

The last tap that I have researched about is Desalinated Water that was turned on few years back, with the opening of the SingSpring Desalination Plant in Tuas. It is said to be one of Asia’s largest seawater reverse-osmosis plant which produces 30 million gallons of water a day. Singapore’s second desalination plant has increased water supply by 70 million gallons per day which is said to be completed this year.
Desalination is the process of reverse osmosis which help to conserve and at the same time gain more supply of water. It has an unlimited supply of water which Singapore then would not face any troubles of lack of water. It is said that by 2061, when the Water Agreement with Malaysia expires, Singapore would have enough water for themselves even if there is no water agreement with the help of the other Taps in Singapore..

However, the process and making of desalinated water have failed to keep the chances of water pollution low as the chemicals that is used for cleaning can only be used for a limited amount of time and when they’ve lost their ability to clean the water, these chemicals are dumped which will they will often find their way back into the ocean where they poison plant and animal life. Desalination also requires a huge amount of energy which will also raise the amount of money used to keep the Desalination Plant working.

It seems to me that the fourth National Tap of Singapore have placed many burdens on the country and the world and although this process can help Singapore be independent, it is not one of the best way to increase the water supply.

Click here if you wish to know more!

Tap 3: NEWater

After finding out more about the first and second taps in Singapore, I did some research about the third tap, which is NEWater. Apparently, NEWater is produced from used water that is purified using advanced membrane technologies and ultra-violet disinfection, making it ultra-clean and safe to drink. There are 4 NEWater plants in Singapore, the latest and largest one was in Changi. I visited the visitor centre in the NEWater plant in Bedok to find out more about NEWater.

I have learned a lot from the visitor centre. I was able to witness on how NEWater is produced and I was able to taste NEWater. NEWater has a different taste to it, as nutrients are removed from the water, therefore it tastes different. Currently, NEWater produces 30% of Singapore's water supply. However, the government plans to increase it to 50% of Singapore's water supply in 2060.Here are a few advantages and disadvantages to NEWater.
  • We are able to save more water as used water is recycled and purified to obtain clean water.
  • We are able to be self-dependant. We do not need to rely on other countries for water.
  • We will have a ready source of water at all times
  • It is a long term solution for water scarcity
  • Purifying used water is extremely expensive
  • People do not like the taste of purified water as nutrients are removed.

Tap 2: Imported Water

 Tap 2:Imported Water

  Singapore has been importing water from Johor, Malaysia, under two bilateral agreements. The first agreement expired in August 2011 and second agreement will expire in 2061. Malaysia support half of Singapore's water supply.

On the way to Singapore, I saw big three pipes lining along with the bridge connecting Malaysia and Singapore. Two of them are used to import water from Malaysia to Singapore, and the remaining one to export some of the purified water to Malaysia for resale.

  Singapore is a small country relying almost entirely on import for resources.  It would be nice to visit Singapore again  in a few years.The Singapore government has stated that it will not renew the 1961 agreement which expires in 2011. To reduce Singapore's dependence on imported water, the government has taken steps to increase the size of the local water catchment area and to build up the supply from non-conventional sources, namely NEWater (reclaimed water) and desalinated water. With the various water projects progressing well, government officials have assured Singaporeans that the country can be self-reliant in water by 2061.

  I think that Imported water is deemed more convenient since Malaysia is located close to Singapore.However, it is not sustainable int he long run as international agreements can expire like the agreement between Singapore and Malaysia in August 2011.It is not possible for Singapore to keep relying on imported water since there is always an underlting theat when our neighboring countries decide to cut off their water supply.Malaysia could also increase the price of their water to earn more.

Adapted from:

Friday, 22 March 2013

Tap 1: Local catchment area

 I have finally arrived in Singapore. Today, I called the PUB 24-hour call center to ask for 1 type of the national taps which was Local catchment area.Local catchment area is one of the most effective way and the cheapest tap to increase supply of water in Singapore. I also found out both advantages and disadvantages of local catchment areas.

Brief introduction of local catchment area

You may wondered what is catchment area. Catchment area is an area where rainfall is collected.In addition, storm water collection ponds have also been constructed in some housing estates. These ponds also collect rainwater. Rainwater is collected through a comprehensive network of drains, canals, rivers and storm water collection ponds before it is channeled to Singapore's 17 reservoirs for storage. Catchment areas allows Singapore to store much more water during high or low rainfall season.


Firstly,Local catchment area is one of the most cheapest tap as rainwater is easier and cheaper to purify as it cleaner than used water and it also does not contain salt.Secondly, Catchment area can also increase the amount of  rainwater collected and hence  it will provide a ready source of usable water.Thirdly ,more areas of greenery can be conserved in the process.


1)Not viable for small countries due to lack of land.
2)Less land will be available for other purposes such as building houses and industries
3)Ineffective in time of drought

List of  catchment area in Singapore:


  • Bedok Reservoir
  • Marina Reservoir
  • Punggol Reservoir
  • Kranji Reservoir
  • Jurong Lake Reservoir
  • MacRitchie Reservoir


  • Sungei api api
  • Sungei Tampines
  • Singapore River
  • Rochor River
  • Geylang River

 I would advise you to look at these website which will show a map of water catchment areas in Singapore

Some of these informations are adapted from


Thursday, 21 March 2013

In order to get started with our research, i found this short video about a summary of the Singapore 4 national taps. Watch and Enjoy this video !


On 8 March 2013,
               Introduction of the proposal
    I am really excited to go to Singapore to find out about what the Singapore goverment has done to increase Singapore's water supply. My group and I are a team of researches from a rich European country  with a serve water shortage. So, we will be coming up with a proposal to introduce the different ways that Singapore has introduced to dealt  with their problem of water scarcity. I have actually done research about ways Singapore increases their water supply. I found that they have 4 national taps.I am going to learn more about these taps when I arrive in Singapore.
The Four taps are:
  • Water Catchment area(20% of water supply)
  • Imported Water from neighbouring countries( 40% of water supply )
  • Reclaimed Water/ NEWater (30% of water supply)
  • Desalinated Water (10% of water supply)
Found that image on,d.bmk&psig=AFQjCNHDBfrqeuU4dcfYXQDQdG7p0Vy_sg&ust=1364018375961176